This book explores the international diffusion of Participatory Budgeting (PB), a local policy created in 1989 in Porto Alegre, Brazil, which has now spread worldwide. The book argues that the action of a group of individuals called "Ambassadors of Participation" was crucial to make PB part of the international agenda. This international dimension has been largely overlooked in the vast literature produced on participatory democracy devices. The book combines public policy analysis and the study of international relations, and makes a broad comparative study of PB, including cases from Latin America, Europe, and Sub-Saharan Africa. The book also presents a new methodology developed to examine PB diffusion, the "transnational political ethnography", which combines in-depth interviews, participant observation and document analysis both at the local and transnational level. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
The 21-Day Budgeting Challenge, the fourth book in the 21-Day Challenge series! Are you tired of having your money seemingly disappear from your pocket? Of fighting debt? Of having the feeling that no matter how much you work, you'll never have enough money to buy what you really want? Are you ready to take action, to take responsibility over your earnings & expenses with a simple, yet smart and efficient budget plan and finally accomplish your financial goals? Maybe you're thinking that the only thing worse than budgeting is reading a book about budgeting. And you may be right. But with this book, my hope is that I can change your mind. My hope is that by following this challenge, you will feel more in control of your spending habits, have clearer and more meaningful financial goals and, most importantly, have a little fun while doing it! In this book, we'll look at ways to uncover your own personal psychology behind money, as well as practical methods to make and reach finance goals. From saving pennies here and there by cutting out mindless spending to rethinking your approach to saving entirely, we'll tackle your money issues the simple way: day by day. We'll consider realistic ways to save money, but also look in depth at what it really means to live a minimalist life and what the true value of the items in our lives actually is. The 21-Day Budgeting Challenge will help you to: Identify your "money personality" Set up a realistic budget that works for you Get out of debt Understand minimalism and how it compares to consumerism Incorporate practical and fun tips to save money you might not have thought of before ..and much more inside! Learn how to set up a budget and make the most of your money TODAY. Are you ready to take the challenge?
This book represents a radical departure from the established theory in taking an organisational view of resource allocation in marketing, which stresses the importance of structure and process rather than just budgeting technique. The book describes and analyses marketing organisation and processes in terms of organisational power and politics and models market budgets as political outcomes.
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